Student Author(s)

Michael Krashes

GSBS Program


UMMS Affiliation

Department of Neurobiology



Document Type


Medical Subject Headings

Action Potentials; Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Appetitive Behavior; Behavior, Animal; Conditioning, Classical; Cyclic AMP; Cycloheximide; Drosophila; Drosophila Proteins; Food Deprivation; Memory; Mushroom Bodies; Mutation; Neurons; *Odors; Protein Biosynthesis; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; Raphanus; Temperature; Time Factors


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Neuroscience and Neurobiology


In Drosophila, formation of aversive olfactory long-term memory (LTM) requires multiple training sessions pairing odor and electric shock punishment with rest intervals. In contrast, here we show that a single 2 min training session pairing odor with a more ethologically relevant sugar reinforcement forms long-term appetitive memory that lasts for days. Appetitive LTM has some mechanistic similarity to aversive LTM in that it can be disrupted by cycloheximide, the dCreb2-b transcriptional repressor, and the crammer and tequila LTM-specific mutations. However, appetitive LTM is completely disrupted by the radish mutation that apparently represents a distinct mechanistic phase of consolidated aversive memory. Furthermore, appetitive LTM requires activity in the dorsal paired medial neuron and mushroom body alpha'beta' neuron circuit during the first hour after training and mushroom body alphabeta neuron output during retrieval, suggesting that appetitive middle-term memory and LTM are mechanistically linked. Last, experiments feeding and/or starving flies after training reveals a critical motivational drive that enables appetitive LTM retrieval.

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Citation: J Neurosci. 2008 Mar 19;28(12):3103-13. Link to article on publisher's site

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID