Implications for interrelationships between nuclear architecture and control of gene expression under microgravity conditions
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center
Medical Subject Headings
Cell Nucleus; *Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; Transcription Factors; Tumor Cells, Cultured; *Weightlessness
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
Components of nuclear architecture are functionally interrelated with control of gene expression. There is growing appreciation that multiple levels of nuclear organization integrate the regulatory cues that support activation and suppression of genes as well as the processing of gene transcripts. The linear representation of genes and promoter elements provide the potential for responsiveness to physiological regulatory signals. Parameters of chromatin structure and nucleosome organization support synergism between activities at independent regulatory sequences and render promoter elements accessible or refractory to transcription factors. Association of genes, transcription factors, and the machinery for transcript processing with the nuclear matrix facilitates fidelity of gene expression within the three-dimensional context of nuclear architecture. Mechanisms must be defined that couple nuclear morphology with enzymatic parameters of gene expression. The recent characterization of factors that mediate chromatin remodeling and identification of intranuclear targeting signals that direct transcription factors to subnuclear domains where gene expression occurs link genetic and structural components of transcriptional control. Nuclear reorganization and aberrant intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors for developmental and tissue-specific control occurs in tumor cells and in neurological disorders. Compromises in nuclear structure-function interrelationships can occur as a consequence of microgravity-mediated perturbations in cellular architecture.
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Citation: FASEB J. 1999;13 Suppl:S157-66.