Viral pathogenesis, modulation of immune receptor signaling and treatment.
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, MD/PhD Program; Department of Pathology
Medical Subject Headings
Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Humans; Molecular Sequence Data; Receptors, Immunologic; Signal Transduction; Virus Diseases; Virus Internalization; Virus Replication; Viruses
During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the latter have equipped themselves with an elaborate immune system to defend themselves from the invading viruses. In order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host, viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses as well as exploit them for productive viral replication. These strategies include those that target immune receptor transmembrane signaling. Uncovering the exact molecular mechanisms underlying these critical points in viral pathogenesis will not only help us understand strategies used by viruses to escape from the host immune surveillance but also reveal new therapeutic targets for antiviral as well as immunomodulatory therapy. In this chapter, based on our current understanding of transmembrane signal transduction mediated by multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs) and the results of sequence analysis, we discuss the MIRR-targetingviral strategies of immune evasion and suggest their possible mechanisms that, in turn, reveal new points of antiviral intervention. We also show how two unrelated enveloped viruses, human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus, use a similar mechanism to modulate the host immune response mediated by two functionally different MIRRs-T-cell antigen receptor and natural killer cell receptor, NKp30. This suggests that it is very likely that similar general mechanisms can be or are used by other viral and possibly nonviral pathogens.
Rights and Permissions
WM Kim, AB Sigalov. Viral Pathogenesis, Modulation of Immune Receptor Signaling and Treatment. In Multichain Immune Recognition Receptor Signaling. Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 640. Ed., AB Sigalov. Springer, 2008, p.325-349.