GSBS Dissertations and Theses

ORCID ID

0000-0001-5729-3973

Approval Date

1-12-2017

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Program

Neuroscience

Department

Psychiatry

First Thesis Advisor

Haley Melikian

Keywords

Dopamine Transporters, ADHD, Dopamine, Protein Kinase C, Tyrosine Kinase, Retromer, membrane trafficking

Abstract

Dopamine transporters (DAT) facilitate high-affinity presynaptic dopamine (DA) reuptake in the central nervous system, and are required to constrain extracellular DA levels and maintain presynaptic DAergic tone. DAT is the primary target for addictive and therapeutic psychostimulants, which require DAT binding to elicit reward. DAT availability at presynaptic terminals ensures its proper function, and is dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking. My thesis research focused on two fundamental questions: 1) what are the molecular mechanisms that control DAT endocytosis? and 2) what are the mechanism(s) that govern DAT’s post-endocytic fate? Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, I discovered that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, activated by cdc42 kinase 1 (Ack1), stabilizes DAT plasma membrane expression by negatively regulating DAT endocytosis. I found that stimulated DAT endocytosis absolutely requires Ack1 inactivation. Moreover, I was able to restore normal DAT endocytosis to a trafficking dysregulated DAT coding variant identified in an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patient via constitutively activating Ack1. To address what mechanisms govern DAT’s post-endocytic fate, I took advantage of a small molecule labeling approach to directly couple fluorophore to the DAT surface population, and subsequently tracked DAT’s temporal-spatial post-endocytic itinerary in immortalized mesencephalic cells. Using this approach, I discovered that the retromer complex mediates DAT recycling and is required to maintain DAT surface levels via a DAT C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. Taken together, these findings shed considerable new light on DAT trafficking mechanisms, and pave the way for future studies examining the role of regulated DAT trafficking in neuropsychiatric disorders.

DOI

10.13028/M2J01G

Rights and Permissions

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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