GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Approval Date

4-16-2015

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Program

Clinical and Population Health Research

Department

Quantitative Health Sciences

First Thesis Advisor

Robert J. Goldberg, PhD

Keywords

Myocardial Infarction, Coronary Artery Disease, Patient Readmission, Prognosis, Mortality, Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Subjects

Dissertations, UMMS; Myocardial Infarction; Coronary Artery Disease; Patient Readmission; Prognosis; Mortality; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with or without ST-segment elevation, is a common presentation of coronary heart disease and affected more than 800,000 American adults in 2010. The overall goal of this dissertation was to examine decade-long trends in the extent of delay in the receipt of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 30-day hospital readmission rates in patients having survived an AMI, and multiple decade long trends in 1-year post-hospital all-cause mortality, as well as factors associated with these outcomes, among patients hospitalized with AMI.

Methods: Data from the Worcester Heart Attack Study, a population-based chronic disease surveillance project that has been carried out among adult residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area, hospitalized with AMI on a biennial basis from 1975 through 2009 at all medical centers in central MA, were used for this dissertation.

Results: Between 1999 and 2009, among patients hospitalized with STEMI, the likelihood of receiving a primary PCI within 90 minutes after emergency department arrival increased dramatically from 1999/2001 (11.6%) to 2007/2009 (70.5%). Between 1999 and 2009, among hospital survivors of an AMI, the 30-day all-cause rehospitalization rates decreased from 1999/2001 (20.3%) to 2007/2009 (16.7%). The overall cause-specific 30-day rehospitalization rates due to CVD, non-CVD, and AMI were 10.1%, 7.1%, and 1.8%, respectively, during the years under study. Between 1975 and 2009, among hospital survivors for a first AMI, the 1-year post-discharge mortality rates remained relatively stable from 1975-1984 (12.9%) to 1986-1997 (12.5%), but increased during 1999-2009 (15.8%). We identified several demographic, clinical and in-hospital treatment factors associated with an increased risk of failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes after emergency department arrival, 30-day readmissions, and 1-year post-discharge mortality.

Conclusions: Our findings can hopefully lead to the enhanced development of innovative, patient-centered, intervention strategies which can further improve the treatment and transitions of care, as well as short and long-term prognosis, of men and women hospitalized with AMI.

DOI

10.13028/M29P4B

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