Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
RNA-Binding Proteins; RNA Stability; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Trans-Activators; Translation, Genetic; Academic Dissertations; Dissertations, UMMS
Many intricate and highly conserved mechanisms have evolved to safeguard organisms against errors in gene expression. The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (NMD) exemplifies one such mechanism, specifically by eliminating mRNAs containing premature translation termination codons within their protein coding regions, thereby limiting the synthesis of potentially deleterious truncated polypeptides. Studies in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae have found that the activity of at least three trans-acting factors, known as UPF1, UPF2/NMD2, and UPF3 is necessary for the proper function of the NMD pathway. Further research conducted in yeast indicates that the degradation of substrates of the NMD pathway is dependent on their translation, and that the sub-cellular site of their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Although most evidence in yeast suggests that substrates of the NMD pathway are degraded in the cytoplasm while in association with the translation apparatus, some mammalian studies have found several mRNAs whose decay appears to occur within the nucleus or before their transport to the cytoplasm has been completed. In addition, study of the mammalian TPI mRNA found that this transcript was unavailable as a substrate for the NMD pathway once it had been successfully exported to the cytoplasm, further supporting the notion that the degradation of mammalian substrates of the NMD pathway occurs in association with the nucleus, or during export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
To determine if yeast cytoplasmic nonsense-containing mRNA can become immune to the NMD pathway we examined the decay kinetics of two NMDS substrate mRNAs in response to repressing or activating the NMD pathway. Both the ade2-1 and pgk1-UAG-2 nonsense-containing mRNAs were stabilized by repressing this pathway, while activation of NMD resulted in the rapid and immediate degradation of each transcripts. These findings demonstrate that nonsense-containing mRNAs residing in the nucleus are potentially susceptible to NMD at each round of translation.
The remainder of this thesis utilizes protein overexpression studies to gain understanding into the function of factors related to the processes of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of a C-terminal truncated form of Nmd3p was found to be dominant-negative for cell viability, translation and the normal course of rRNA biogenesis.
Overexpression studies conducted with mutant forms of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay protein Upf1p, found that overexpression of mutants in the ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis region ofUpflp were dominant-negative for growth in an otherwise wild-type yeast strain. Furthermore, overexpression of the ATP hydrolysis mutant of Upf1p (DE572AA), resulted in the partial inhibition of NMD and a general perturbation of the translation apparatus. These results support previous studies suggesting a general role for Upf1p function in translation.
Belk, JP. A Characterization of Substrates and Factors Involved in Yeast Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay: A Dissertation. (2002). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 65. http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/65
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