Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Master of Science in Clinical Investigation Program
Obesity; Insulin Resistance
Obesity is an important risk factor for resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and is a precursor of type 2 diabetes and other disorders.
To identify molecular pathways in adipose tissue and inflammatory cells that may result in obesity-associated insulin resistance, we exploited the fact that not all obese individuals are prone to insulin resistance. Thus the degree of obesity as a variable was removed by studying obese subjects of similar body mass index (BMI) who are insulin-sensitive (IS) versus insulin-resistant (IR).
Combining gene expression profiling with computational approaches, we determined the global gene expression signatures of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples obtained from 10 obese-IR and 10 obese-IS patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. In a secondary study, we isolated monocytes from 4 obese-IR, 3 obese-IS, and 4 nonobese-IS adolescent and young adult subjects for purposes of assessing differences in expression of inflammatory genes in monocytes using RT-PCR.
Gene sets related to chemokine activity and chemokine receptor-binding were identified as most highly enriched in the omental tissue from obese-IR compared to obese-IS subjects, independent of BMI. Strikingly, insulin resistance, but not BMI, was associated with increased macrophage infiltration in the omental adipose tissue, as was adipocyte size.
In the adolescent and young adult cohort, expression of two cytokine signaling molecules (IL8, SOCS3) and two downstream products of the JNK pathway (JunB, c-Fos) showed increased expression in the obese-IR subjects compared to the obese-IS and nonobese-IS subjects, suggesting the presence of a proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes in obesity, which is exacerbated in the insulin resistant state.
Our findings demonstrate that inflammation of omental adipose tissue and activation of proinflammatory monocytes is strongly associated with insulin resistance in human obesity. Manipulation of these pathways may result in the prevention of or delay in the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities.
Hardy, OT. Role of the Monocyte/Macrophage Cell Lineage in Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance. (2010). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 464. http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/464
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