Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program
Endoplasmic Reticulum; Signal Transduction; T-Lymphocytes; Protein Kinase C; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; Apoptosis; Transcription Factor CHOP; Academic Dissertations; Dissertations, UMMS
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
T cells play a central role in cellular-mediated immunity and must become activated to participate as effector cells in the immune response. The activation process is highly intricate and involves stimulation of a number of downstream signaling pathways enabling T cells to proliferate and produce cytokines that are vital for proper effector function. This increase in protein production and protein folding activity adds to the normal physiological strain on cellular machinery. One cellular compartment that has generated a mechanism to mitigate the stress induced by increased protein production is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
In general, an increase in cellular production of proteins that overwhelms a cell’s protein folding capability can alter ER homeostasis and lead to ER stress. To counteract this stress, an adaptive cellular mechanism known as the ER stress response (ERSR) is initiated. The ERSR allows a cell to cope with normal physiological stress within the ER caused by increased protein translation. In this dissertation, we show that in vitro and in vivo T cell activation involving T cell receptor (TCR) ligation in the presence of costimulation initiates the physiological ERSR. Interestingly, the ERSR was also activated in T cells exposed only to TCR ligation, a treatment known to induce the ‘non-responsive’ states of anergy and tolerance. We further identified a key component of the downstream TCR signaling pathway, protein kinase C (PKC), as an initiator of physiological ERSR signaling, thus revealing a previously unknown role for this serine/threonine protein kinase in T cells. Therefore, induction of the physiological ERSR through PKC signaling may be an important ‘preparatory’ mechanism initiated during the early activation phase of T cells.
If ER stress is persistent and ER homeostasis is not reestablished, physiological ER stress becomes pathological and initiates cellular death pathways through ER stress-induced apoptotic signaling. We further present data demonstrating that absence of functional Gimap5, a putative GTPase implicated to play a role in TCR signaling and maintenance of overall T cell homeostasis, leads to pathological ER stress and apoptosis. Using the BioBreeding diabetes-prone (BBDP) rat, a model for type 1 diabetes (T1D), we link pathological ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptotic signaling to the observed T cell lymphopenic phenotype of the animal. By depleting the ER stress apoptotic factor CHOP with siRNA, we were able to protect Gimap5-/- BBDP rat T cells from ER stress-induced death. These findings indicate a direct relationship between Gimap5 and maintenance of ER homeostasis for T cell survival.
Overall, our findings suggest that the ERSR is activated by physiological and pathological conditions that disrupt T cell homeostasis. TCR signaling that leads to PKC activation initiates a physiological ERSR, perhaps in preparation for a T cell response to antigen. In addition, we also describe an example of pathological ERSR induction in T cells. Namely, we report that the absence of functional Gimap5 protein in T cells causes CHOP-dependent ER stress-induced apoptosis, perhaps initiated by deregulation of TCR signaling. This indicates a dual role for TCR signaling and regulation in the initiation of both the physiological and pathological ERSR. Future research that provides insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern ERSR induction in TCR signaling and regulation may lead to development of therapeutic modalities for treatment of immune-mediated diseases such as T1D.
Pino, Steven C., "Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Signaling in T Cells: A Dissertation" (2008). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 381.