University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Cigarette smoking and gestational diabetes mellitus in Hispanic woman

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Department of Pediatrics

Publication Date


Document Type



Adolescent; Adult; Diabetes, Gestational; Ethnic Groups; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Smoking; Young Adult


Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Endocrine System Diseases | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Maternal and Child Health | Obstetrics and Gynecology | Substance Abuse and Addiction | Women's Health


AIMS: Hispanic women are at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as compared to non-Hispanic white women. While smoking has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, studies of smoking and GDM are sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and GDM in Hispanic women.

METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of two Hispanic datasets based in Massachusetts: the UMass Medical Health Care dataset and the Proyecto Buena Salud dataset. A total of 3029 Hispanic prenatal care patients with singleton gestations were included. Cigarette smoking prior to and during pregnancy was collected via self-report. Diagnosis of GDM was abstracted from medical records and confirmed by study obstetricians.

RESULTS: One-fifth of participants (20.4%) reported smoking prior to pregnancy, and 11.0% reported smoking in pregnancy. A total of 143 women (4.7%) were diagnosed with GDM. We did not observe an association between pre-pregnancy cigarette smoking and odds of GDM (multivariable OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.47, 1.25). In contrast, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 54% reduction in odds of GDM (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.22, 0.95). However, this association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age, parity, and study site (OR=0.47, 95% CI 0.23, 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS: In this population of Hispanic pregnant women, we did not observe statistically significant associations between pre-pregnancy smoking and odds of GDM. A reduction in odds of GDM among those who smoked during pregnancy was no longer apparent after adjustment for important diabetes risk factors.

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Citation: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Jul;105(1):126-34. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.04.026. Epub 2014 May 9.Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Diabetes research and clinical practice

PubMed ID