University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Micronutrient Intake among Children in Puerto Rico: Dietary and Multivitamin-Multimineral Supplement Sources

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine; UMass Worcester Prevention Research Center



Document Type



Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition | Human and Clinical Nutrition | Public Health


BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are critical for healthy growth and development of children. Micro-nutrient intake from dietary sources is inadequate among some children and may be improved by use of multivitamin and multimineral (MVMM) supplements.

OBJECTIVE: To assess micronutrient intake from dietary and MVMM supplement sources among 12-year-old children in Puerto Rico.

METHODS: A representative sample of 732 children enrolled in an oral health study in Puerto Rico, who completed dietary and MVMM assessments through one 24-h recall, were included in this analysis. Micronutrient intake sources were described and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using the Estimated Average Requirement when available (used Adequate Intake for vitamin K and pantothenic acid). Micronutrient profiles of MVMM users and non-users were compared using t-tests.

RESULTS: Mean intakes of vitamins A, D, E, and K, pantothenic acid, cal-cium, and magnesium from food and beverage sources were below the DRIs. From food and beverage sources, MVMM users had higher intakes of riboflavin and folate compared to non-users (p < 0.05). When MVMM supplements were taken into account, users had higher in-takes of all nutrients except vitamin K. With the help of MVMM, users increased intake of vita-mins E, A, D, and pantothenic acid to IOM-recommended levels but calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K remained below guidelines.

CONCLUSION: Micronutrient intake from diet was below the IOM-recommended levels in the total sample. MVMM use improved intake of selected micronu-trients and facilitated meeting recommendations for some nutrients. Public health measures to improve micronutrient intake among children in Puerto Rico are needed.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 Jul 20:1-11. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed


Children, Hispanics, Puerto Rico, dietary supplements, micronutrient intake

PubMed ID