Predicting freedom from clinical events in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events
Center for Outcomes Research
Medical Subject Headings
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Electrocardiography; Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Heart Failure; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Infarction; Prognosis
Health Services Research
OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with a low likelihood of any adverse in-hospital event. Design, setting and
PATIENTS: Data were analysed from 24 097 patients with NSTEMI or unstable angina included in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (January 2001 to September 2007).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital events were myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure or shock, major bleeding, stroke or death. Two-thirds of the patients were randomly chosen for model development and the remainder for model validation. Multiple logistic regression identified predictors of freedom from an in-hospital event, and a Freedom-from-Event score was developed.
RESULTS: Of the 16 127 patients in the model development group, 19.1% experienced an in-hospital adverse event. Fifteen factors independently predicted freedom from an adverse event: younger age; lower Killip class; unstable angina presentation; no hypotension; no ST deviation; no cardiac arrest at presentation; normal creatinine; decreased pulse rate; no hospital transfer; no history of diabetes, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, or atrial fibrillation; prehospital use of statins, and no chronic warfarin. In the validation group, 18.6% experienced an adverse event. The model discriminated well between patients experiencing an in-hospital event and those who did not in both derivation and validation groups (c-statistic = 0.77 in both). Patients in the three lowest risk deciles had a very low in-hospital mortality (<0.5%) and an uncomplicated clinical course (>93% event-free in hospital). The model also predicted freedom from postdischarge events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke; c-statistic = 0.77).
CONCLUSIONS: The GRACE Freedom-from-Event score can predict the in-hospital course of NSTE-ACS, and identifies up to 30% of the admitted population at low risk of death or any adverse in-hospital event.
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Citation: Heart. 2009 Jun;95(11):888-94. Epub 2009 Feb 25. Link to article on publisher's site