UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine; Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences



Document Type



Defibrillators, Implantable; Mind-Body Therapies; Spirituality


Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Cardiology | Cardiovascular Diseases | Psychological Phenomena and Processes | Psychology


Psychological distress is common in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and has been associated with a worse prognosis. The authors examined whether spiritual well-being is associated with reduced psychological distress in patients with ICDs. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Wellbeing (FACIT-SWB) questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to measure spiritual well-being and overall psychological distress. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore the relationship between these variables.

The study sample included 46 ICD outpatients (32 M, 14 F; age range 43-83). An inverse association between HADS and FACIT-SWB scores was found, persisting after adjustment for demographics, anxiety/depression, medications, therapist support, and functional status (F = 0.001; β= -0.31, CI: -0.44, -0.19). In conclusion, spiritual well-being was independently associated with lower psychological distress in ICD outpatients. Spiritual well-being could act as a protective factor against psychological distress in these high-risk patients.


In accordance with SAGE's copyright and permission policies (, this is the version of the article that the authors submitted to the Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

The final version was published as: J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2012 Oct 1;17(3):148-154. doi:10.1177/2156587212447627. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed


prevention; spirituality; cardioverter defibrillators


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