Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease-correlated cleavage site mutations enhance inhibitor resistance
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
Medical Subject Headings
Amino Acid Sequence; Binding Sites; Drug Resistance, Viral; *HIV Protease; HIV Protease Inhibitors; HIV-1; Humans; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; *Mutation; Polyproteins; Protein Conformation; *gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency; Virus
Drug resistance is an important cause of antiretroviral therapy failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Mutations in the protease render the virus resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs). Gag cleavage sites also mutate, sometimes correlating with resistance mutations in the protease, but their contribution to resistance has not been systematically analyzed. The present study examines mutations in Gag cleavage sites that associate with protease mutations and the impact of these associations on drug susceptibilities. Significant associations were observed between mutations in the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) and p1-p6 cleavage sites and various PI resistance-associated mutations in the protease. Several patterns were frequently observed, including mutations in the NC-p1 cleavage site in combination with I50L, V82A, and I84V within the protease and mutations within the p1-p6 cleavage site in combination with D30N, I50V, and I84V within the protease. For most patterns, viruses with mutations both in the protease and in either cleavage site were significantly less susceptible to specific PIs than viruses with mutations in the protease alone. Altered PI resistance in HIV-1 was found to be associated with the presence of Gag cleavage site mutations. These studies suggest that associated cleavage site mutations may contribute to PI susceptibility in highly specific ways depending on the particular combinations of mutations and inhibitors. Thus, cleavage site mutations should be considered when assessing the level of PI resistance.
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Citation: J Virol. 2009 Nov;83(21):11027-42. Epub 2009 Aug 12. Link to article on publisher's site